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— 5 Best Bets in Primary Sources —
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers
Contains seven newspapers back to their first issues: New York Times (1851-three years ago), Chicago Tribune (1849-1985), and Wall Street Journal (1889-1989), Christian Science Monitor (1908-2002), New York Amsterdam News (1922-1993), Pittsburgh Courier (1950-2002) , Washington Post (1877-1997). More recent issues are available through other databases, such as ProQuest. Includes advertisements, illustrations, etc. as they were laid out on the original page. Coverage: 1849-three years ago. Format: Primary Sources--Historical Newspapers & Periodicals
- Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers
Includes hundreds of 19th century U.S. newspapers. For each issue, the newspaper is captured from cover-to-cover, providing access to every article, advertisement and illustration. Coverage: 1801-1899. Format: Primary Sources--Historical Newspapers & Periodicals
- Early English Books Online - EEBO
Full text of books, pamphlets and broadsides published in England or in English between 1475 and 1700. Includes many of the items indexed in the English Short Title Catalogue. Corresponds to the Pollard and Redgrave, and Wing Short-Title Catalogues, as well as Thomason Tracts. Coverage: 1473-1700. Format: Primary Sources--Documents & Manuscripts
- Eighteenth Century Collections Online - ECCO
Full text--including page images--of books, pamphlets and broadsides published in England or in English between 1701 and 1800. Includes many of the items indexed in the English Short Title Catalogue. Includes ECCO parts I and II. Coverage: 1701-1800. Format: Primary Sources--Documents & Manuscripts
- Readers' Guide Retrospective
Indexes general interest magazines covering most of the 20th century. Coverage: 1890-1982. Format: Articles: Journals or Newspapers
Articles: Journals or Newspapers (3)
- Chronicling America
Search America's historic newspaper pages from 1836-1922 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress. Coverage: 1690-present.
A full-text database of archived issues of academic journals. Since JSTOR is a backfiles project, a typical coverage range is the beginning of a journal until three or five years ago. Supported in part by the Dail Endowment Fund. Coverage: Varies.
- Readers' Guide Retrospective
Indexes general interest magazines covering most of the 20th century. Coverage: 1890-1982.
Encyclopedias & Reference (2)
- European Views of the Americas: 1493 to 1750
Bibliography only, no full text. This database is derived from the seminal reference work "European Americana: A Chronological Guide to Works Printed in Europe Relating to the Americas, 1493-1750," commonly known as the Alden-Landis bibliography (after the co-editors John Alden and Dennis Landis). Features works produced in Europe that make some mention of the discovery and emerging awareness of the Americas. A wide range of subject areas are covered, from natural disasters to disease outbreaks and slavery.
- World Scholar: Latin America and the Caribbean
Includes a wide variety of sources about Latin America and the Caribbean: reference articles and commentary; academic journals and news-feeds; primary-source documents; maps and statistics; audio and video; and more. Covers topics such as politics, economics, religion, culture, international affairs, the environment, science, and technology.
Literary Texts (1)
- Women Writers Online
"Women Writers Online contains the full text of hundreds of pre-Victorian English-language works written by women. Works are both fiction and non-fiction. The text of each work is fully searchable. A special subset, Renaissance Women Online, contains 100 works from this period as well as critical commentary." Coverage: 1400-1850.
The Artstor Digital Library provides images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and sciences, with an accessible suite of software tools for teaching and research. Comprises contributions from outstanding international museums, photographers, libraries, photo archives, and artists and artists' estates. Images form ARTstor are for noncommercial educational or scholarly use only. Images may be used in educational or scholarly presentations, including printed handouts, but may not be otherwise distributed or publicly displayed.
- CAMIO - Catalog of Art Museum Images Online
Rights-cleared, high-quality art images for class projects, art history and studio art programs, course Web sites, lectures, presentations, and research resources.
- Getty Open Content
Hosted by the Getty Research Institute. Search across several of the Getty repositories, including collections databases, library catalogs, collection inventories, and archival finding aids. This link initially limits your search to images available for free download under the Getty's Open Content Program.
Primary Sources--Documents & Manuscripts (47)
The worlds largest online family history resource provides instant access to hundreds of years of history in billions of historical documents and millions of historical photos from all over the world.
- Artemis Primary Sources
Combined interface for searching three primary-source databases simultaneously: Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO), Nineteenth Century Collections Online (NCCO), and The Making of the Modern World.
- Black Economic Empowerment: The National Negro Business League
Booker T. Washington, founder of the National Negro Business League, believed that solutions to the problem of racial discrimination were primarily economic, and that bringing African Americans into the middle class was the key. In 1900, he established the League "to promote the commercial and financial development of the Negro," and headed it until his death. Coverage: 1901-1928.
- Black Nationalism and the Revolutionary Action Movement: The Papers of Muhammad Ahmad (Max Stanford)
This collection of records reproduces the writings and statements of the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) and its leaders. It also covers organizations that evolved from or were influenced by RAM and persons that had close ties to RAM. Source Library: Personal Collection of Dr. Muhammad Ahmad. Coverage: 1962-1999.
- Civil War in Words and Deeds, The
Collection of regimental histories and personal narratives. These first-person accounts, compiled in the postwar period and early 20th Century, chronicle army life during the American Civil War. Source Library: Lost Cause Press. Coverage: 1860-1865.
- Civil War Service Reports of Union Army Generals
These reports represent an attempt by the Adjutant General's Office to obtain more complete records of the service of the various Union generals serving in the Civil War. The Adjutant General requested that each such general submit "a succinct account of your military history." Source Library: U.S. National Archives. Coverage: 1864-1887.
- Correspondence from German Concentration Camps and Prisons
Collection consists of items originating from prisoners held in German concentration camps, internment and transit camps, Gestapo prisons, and POW camps, during and just prior to World War II. Most of the collection consists of letters written or received by prisoners, but also includes receipts for parcels, money orders and personal effects; paper currency; and realia, including Star of David badges that Jews were forced to wear. Coverage: 1936-1945.
- Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts
Covers the Reformation and post-Reformation eras. Includes the full text of theological writings, biblical commentaries, confessional documents, and polemical treatises written by more than 300 Protestant authors. Supported in part by the George W. Paschal Library Endowment and by the Weatherspoon Library Endowment. Coverage: 1500-1700.
- Digital Library of the Catholic Reformation
Includes papal and synodal decrees, catechisms and inquisitorial manuals, Biblical commentaries, theological treatises and systems, liturgical writings, saints' lives, and devotional works. Coverage: 1500-1700.
- Digital National Security Archive
Significant primary documents central to U.S. foreign and military policy since 1945. Contains declassified documents that have been gathered through extensive use of the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Coverage: 1945-2002.
- Early American Imprints, Series I & II (combined)
An electronic version of the Early American Imprints sets. Combined search of both the Evans collection and the Shaw & Shoemaker collection. Coverage: 1639-1819.
- Early American Imprints, Series I. Evans (1639-1800)
An electronic version of the Early American Imprints set. Includes the full text of all known existing books, pamphlets, and broadsides published in the Thirteen Colonies or the United States between 1639 and 1800. Periodical and newspaper articles are not included. Coverage: 1639-1800.
- Early American Imprints, Series II. Shaw/Shoemaker (1801-1819)
An electronic version of the Early American Imprints set. Includes the full text of 36,000 books, pamphlets, and broadsides published in the United States between 1801 and 1819. Periodical and newspaper articles are not included. Coverage: 1801-1819.
- Early English Books Online - EEBO
Full text of books, pamphlets and broadsides published in England or in English between 1475 and 1700. Includes many of the items indexed in the English Short Title Catalogue. Corresponds to the Pollard and Redgrave, and Wing Short-Title Catalogues, as well as Thomason Tracts. Coverage: 1473-1700.
- Eighteenth Century Collections Online - ECCO
Full text--including page images--of books, pamphlets and broadsides published in England or in English between 1701 and 1800. Includes many of the items indexed in the English Short Title Catalogue. Includes ECCO parts I and II. Coverage: 1701-1800.
- Empire Online
Includes over 70,000 images of original documents relating to Empire Studies, sourced from libraries and archives around the world. Contains manuscript and printed material, from not only British but also French, Dutch, Spanish, North American and other points of view. Supported by the Presidential Trust for Faculty Excellence. Coverage: 1400s-present.
- Federal Response to Radicalism in the 1960s
This collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, cultural, and economic issues. It sheds light on internal organization, personnel, and activities of some of the most prominent American radical groups and their movements to change American government and society. Organized alphabetically by organization. Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation Library. Coverage: 1956-1971.
- Federal Surveillance of African Americans, 1920-1984
Between the 1920s & 1980s, the Justice Department and the FBI engaged in widespread investigation of those deemed politically suspect. This collection includes source materials for the major social movements and key figures in early twentieth century black history, and provides a window into the development of America's first systematic domestic surveillance apparatus. Source Library: Federal Bureau of Investigation Library. Coverage: 1920-1984.
- Fight for Racial Justice and the Civil Rights Congress
The Civil Rights Congress (CRC) was formed in 1946 by a merger of three groups with ties to the Communist Party: the International Labor Defense, the National Negro Congress, and the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. The records in this collection represent the files of the national office of the CRC, including case files, publications, correspondence, etc. Coverage: 1946-1955.
- Greensboro Massacre, 1979: Shootout between the American Nazis and the Communist Workers Party
On November 3, 1979, a rally of black industrial workers and Communists was planned in Greensboro, North Carolina, against the Ku Klux Klan. During the rally, a caravan of Klansmen and members of the American Nazi Party drove by the area where the anti-Klan activists were congregating. The confrontation led to gunfire and the deaths of five protest marchers. This collection of documents from the FBI, local and state police, and other law enforcement agencies sheds new light on the motivations of the Communist organizers, the shootings, subsequent investigations, and efforts to heal the Greensboro community. Coverage: 1979-1981.
Research materials for U.S. genealogy Coverage: varies.
- House of Commons Parliamentary Papers
Part of the larger British Parliamentary Papers, this collection includes the House of Commons sessional papers from 1715 to the present, with supplementary material back to 1688. Also included are the Journals of the House of Commons and House of Lords (1635-1834), Private and Local Bills and Acts (1695-1834), and House of Lords Papers (1714-1805). A source for the history of Great Britain and its colonies. Coverage: 1688-.
- Indian Trade in the Southeastern Spanish Borderlands: Papers of Panton, Leslie and Company
Comprises more than 8,000 legal, political and diplomatic documents of the Panton, Leslie & Co. trading firm. For many years Panton, Leslie & Co. dominated trade with the Creeks and Seminoles. They eventually captured much of the trade with the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and were important in the trade with the Cherokees. The partners harbored antipathy toward America and used their influence with the Indians to advance Spanish territorial claims against the U.S. and to encourage the Indians to resist white settlers and American attempts to acquire land from the tribes. Source Library: University of West Florida. Coverage: 1763-1901.
- Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees: The West's Response to Jewish Emigration
The Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) was organized in London in August 1938 as a result of the Evian Conference of July 1938, which had been called by President Roosevelt to consider the problem of racial, religious, and political refugees from central Europe. Source Library: U.S. National Archives. Coverage: 1938-1947.
- James Meredith, J. Edgar Hoover, and the Integration of the University of Mississippi
This collection contains extensive FBI documentation on James Meredith's battle to enroll at the University of Mississippi in 1962 and the white political and social backlash, including his correspondence with the NAACP and positive and negative letters he received from around the world during his ordeal. Source Library: Federal Bureau of Investigation Library. Coverage: 1961-1962.
- Legislative Insight
Legislative histories, including complete text of enacted laws and the full text of associated congressional documents (Congressional Record excerpts, committee hearings, etc.). Coverage: 1929-2012.
- Literature, Culture and Society in Depression Era America: Archives of the Federal Writers' Project
The Federal Writers' Project (FWP) was the most controversial and contentious program of the Depression-era's Work Projects Administration, recognizing that journalists, playwrights and novelists were also unemployed. This collection presents the FWP publications of all 47 states involved in the project. Coverage: 1933-1943.
- Making of America
19th century journals and books from the United States. Coverage: 1800-1900.
- Making of the Modern World
Digital facsimile images of primary sources that track the development of the modern, western world through the lens of trade and wealth from the period 1450-1914. Full-text searching across works in the areas of history, political science, social conditions, technology and industry, economics, area studies and more. Coverage: 1450-1914.
- Mass Observation Online
Mass Observation was a social research organization formed in 1937 to study the everyday lives of ordinary people in Britain. This collection includes studies and publications, diaries and personal writings, photographs, and interactive maps. It describes everyday life in the words of ordinary people, with interviews and records of overheard conversations, rather than through polls. Coverage: 1937-1965.
- Medieval Family Life
Contains full-color images of original medieval manuscripts from five family letter collections. Includes full text searchable transcripts from the printed editions, where available, plus supplementary material such as family trees, chronology, glossary, images, links to related scholarly websites, etc. Coverage: Middle ages.
- Mountain People: Life and Culture in Appalachia
This collection consists of the diaries, journals, and narratives of explorers, emigrants, military men, Native Americans, and travelers. In addition, there are accounts on the development of farming and mining communities, family histories, and folklore. These accounts provide information on the social, political, economic, scientific, religious and agricultural characteristics of the Appalachian region. Coverage: 1700-1950.
- Nineteenth Century Collections Online
Primary source collections of the "long" nineteenth century. Collections are sourced through partnerships with major world libraries and specialist libraries. Content includes monographs, newspapers, manuscripts, ephemera, maps, and more. Coverage: 1769-1906.
- North American Women's Letters and Diaries
Includes the full text of diaries and letters of women who lived in the United States and Canada from colonial times until 1950. Coverage: 1675-1949.
- Price Control in the Courts: The U.S. Emergency Court of Appeals, 1941-1961
This collection provides a unique look into the creation and activities of the temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, established by Congress and given exclusive jurisdiction to determine the validity of price control regulations under the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942. Coverage: 1941-1961.
- ProQuest Congressional
Provides indexing and full text of federal bills, laws, and regulations as well as information on Congress, voting records, legislative histories from 1789 to the present, and current legislative activities. Also contains the full text of the U.S. Serial Set and American State Papers from 1789-2003. Also includes indexing and full text of published and unpublished Congressional Hearings from 1829 to present. Includes the Congressional Record from 1873-present and its predecessor publications from 1789-1873. Coverage: 1789-present.
- Records of the Persian Gulf War
This collection contains materials related to the diplomatic and military response by the United States (as part of a multi-national force) to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Source Library: George H.W. Bush Presidential Library. Coverage: 1990-1991.
- Republic of New Afrika: Independence, Reparations, and Citizenship
This collection provides documentation collected by the FBI and chronicles the activities of the social movement organization The Republic of New Afrika (RNA), including activities of national and local leaders, power struggles within the organization, its growing militancy, and its affiliations with other Black militant organizations. Source Library: Federal Bureau of Investigation Headquarters Library. Coverage: 1968-1980.
- Romanticism: Life, Literature and Landscape
Presents the manuscript collections of the Wordsworth Trust, researchers unique access to the working notebooks, verse manuscripts and correspondence of William Wordsworth and his fellow writers. Authors and artists represented include Wordsworth, Coleridge, Lamb, Ruskin, Gainsborough, and others. Also includes over 2,500 fine art pieces from the Wordsworth Trust's fine art collection.
- Sanborn Maps 1867-1970: North Carolina
Provides digital access to 11,173 large-scale maps of 158 North Carolina towns and cities. Users have the ability to easily manipulate the maps, magnify and zoom in on specific sections, and compare maps from different years. Coverage: 1867-1970.
- Social Issues Primary Sources Collection
Covers crime & punishment, environment, family, gender issues & sexuality, government, politics & protest, human & civil rights, immigration & multiculturalism, medicine, health, bioethics, social policy, and terrorism. A subset of the Gale Virtual Reference Library.
- Southern Negro Youth Congress and the Communist Party: Papers of James and Esther Cooper Jackson
Contains clippings, correspondence, James Jackson's lectures, research notebooks, speeches, and writings (published and unpublished), internal documents pertaining to the Southern Negro Youth Congress and to Freedomways, materials pertaining to the Smith Act indictments of Jackson and other communists, Communist Party internal documents, and memorabilia and other biographical materials. Source Library: Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York University. Coverage: 1932-2000.
- Tiananmen Square and U.S.-China Relations, 1989-1993
This digital collection reviews U.S.-China relations in the post-Cold War Era, and analyzes the significance of the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations, China's human rights issues, and resumption of World Bank loans to China in July 1990. Source Library: George H.W. Bush Presidential Library. Coverage: 1989-1993.
- U.S. Relations with the Vatican and the Holocaust, 1940-1950
Correspondence, reports and analyses, memos of conversations, and personal interviews exploring such themes as U.S.-Vatican relations, the Vatican's role in World War II, Jewish refugees, Italian anti-Jewish laws during the papacy of Pius XII, and the pope's personal knowledge of the treatment of European Jews. Source Library: U.S. National Archives. Coverage: 1940-1950.
- War Department and Indian Affairs, 1800-1824
Until the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1824, Indian affairs were under the control of the Secretary of War. This collection includes letters to and from the War Department, including correspondence from Indian superintendents, territorial & state governors, military commanders, Indians, missionaries, and other public and private individuals. Additional attachments include vouchers, receipts, depositions, contracts, newspapers, copies of speeches, passports for travel in the Indian country, etc. Source Library: U.S. National Archives Coverage: 1800-1824.
- We Were Prepared for the Possibility of Death: Freedom Riders in the South, 1961
Freedom Riders rode interstate buses into the segregated South to test the U.S. Supreme Court decision in <i>Boynton v. Virginia</i>, which outlawed racial segregation in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. The Freedom Rides bolstered the credibility of the Civil Rights Movement and called national attention to violent disregard for the law in the southern United States. Source Library: Federal Bureau of Investigation Library. Coverage: 1961.
- World Trials Library
The HeinOnline World Trials Library Includes more than 3,500 trials including complete sets of American State Trials, Howell's State Trials, and the Nuremburg Trials. It contains trial transcripts, critical court documents, and trial-related resources such as monographs which analyze and debate the decisions of famous trials, as well as biographies of many of the greatest trial lawyers in history.
Primary Sources--Historical Newspapers & Periodicals (16)
- 17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers
Collection of 17th and 18th century English newspapers and news pamphlets. Published mostly in London, however there are also some English provincial, Irish and Scottish papers, and a few examples from the American colonies, Europe and India. Includes page images. Coverage: 1604-1804.
- African American Newspapers, 1827-1998
Searchable collection of 270 newspapers from 36 states, offering insights into African-American history, culture, and daily life. Includes page images. Coverage: 1827-1998.
- African American Periodicals, 1825-1995
Features 173 wide-ranging titles published throughout the United States. Coverage ranges from slavery during the Antebellum Period to the struggles and triumphs of the modern era. Drawn from the holdings of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Coverage: 1825-1995.
- America's Historical Newspapers
Searchable database of hundreds of historical newspapers, including page images from microfilm. WFU access includes both the Early American Newspapers Series 1 (1690-1876) and African-American Newspapers (1827-1998). Tip: If the link is only searching the African-American Newspapers collection, look for the link to Search "All of America's Historical Newspapers" at the top of the database screen. Coverage: 1690-1876, 1827-1998.
- American Periodicals Series
Includes digitized images of the pages of American magazines and journals published from colonial days to the dawn of the 20th century. Titles range from Benjamin Franklin's General Magazine and America's first scientific journal, Medical Repository; popular magazines such as Vanity Fair and Ladies' Home Journal; regional and niche publications; and groundbreaking journals like The Dial, Puck, and McClure's. Articles, advertisements, and illustrations are included. Coverage: 1740-1900.
- British Periodicals
Searchable full text of hundreds of British periodicals from the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth. Coverage: 1680s-1930s.
- C19: The Nineteenth Century Index
Covers books and periodicals of the 19th century. Corresponds to or provides indexing for: Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, Nineteenth Century Short Title Catalogue, American Periodicals Series, Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, ArchivesUSA, and Palmer's Index to the Times. Coverage: 1800-1900.
- Confederate Newspapers: A Collection from Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia and Alabama
This collection is a mixture of issues and papers from Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia, and Alabama ranging from 1861-1865. These newspapers "recorded the real and true history of public opinion during the war." Coverage: 1860-1865.
- Economist Historical Archive
Fully searchable, complete facsimile edition of The Economist, the weekly paper covering politics, current affairs and all aspects of business and trade worldwide. Contains more than 600,000 pages, with full-colour images, topic and area supplements and surveys. An excellent multidisciplinary primary source for researching and teaching the 19th and 20th centuries. Coverage: 1843-2008.
- Japanese-American Relocation Camp Newspapers: Perspectives on Day-to-Day Life
One of the darker chapters in American history and one of the lesser-discussed events of World War II was the forced internment, during the war, of persons of Japanese descent. This collection, consisting of 25 individual titles, documents day-to-day life in the internment camps. Most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Sample titles include the Rohwer Outpost, Poston Chronicle, Gila News Courier, Tulean Dispatch, Granada Pioneer, Minndoka Irrigator, Topaz Times, Manzanar Free Press, Denson Tribune, and Heart Mountain Sentinel. Source Library: Library of Congress. Coverage: 1942-1945.
- Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers
Includes hundreds of 19th century U.S. newspapers. For each issue, the newspaper is captured from cover-to-cover, providing access to every article, advertisement and illustration. Coverage: 1801-1899.
- North China Herald Online
From BrillOnline Primary Sources, The North China Herald was published in Shanghai from around 1850 to the 1940s. It was the official journal for British consular notifications and for announcements of the Shanghai Municipal Council. It also features translations of Chinese official notifications and news. Coverage: 1850-1940.
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers
Contains seven newspapers back to their first issues: New York Times (1851-three years ago), Chicago Tribune (1849-1985), and Wall Street Journal (1889-1989), Christian Science Monitor (1908-2002), New York Amsterdam News (1922-1993), Pittsburgh Courier (1950-2002) , Washington Post (1877-1997). More recent issues are available through other databases, such as ProQuest. Includes advertisements, illustrations, etc. as they were laid out on the original page. Coverage: 1849-three years ago.
- Southern Literary Messenger: Literature of the Old South
The Southern Literary Messenger enjoyed an impressive thirty-year run and was in its time the South's most important literary periodical. Scholars and students of history, journalism, and literature can discern much about how the hot-button topics of slavery and secession were presented in southern intellectual and literary culture in the early stages of the Civil War. Coverage: 1834-1864.
- Through the Camera Lens: The Moving Picture World and the Silent Cinema Era, 1907-1927
For those within the film industry, information and opinion were shaped by a number of aggressive trade publications, each competing for the same limited number of subscribers. Chief among these was the Moving Picture World, which reviewed current releases and published news, features, and interviews relating to all aspects of the industry. Coverage: 1907-1927.
- Times Digital Archive
As the "world's newspaper of record," The Times (of London) has covered major international events from the French Revolution to the War in Iraq. The Times Digital Archive allows users to search over 200 years of this invaluable historical source. Coverage: 1785 - 5 years ago.
Primary Sources--Other (3)
- BiblioBoard Web
This is a trial version of BiblioBoard Web. BiblioBoard contains anthologies of books, images, documents, sounds and video around specific themes. BiblioBoard is also available as an app for the iPad and will soon be available for Kindle Fire HD and Nexus tablets.
- New! Fold3
Fold3 provides convenient access to US military records, including the stories, photos, and personal documents of the men and women who served.
- In the First Person
A database that links users to full text English-language oral histories on the free web and in proprietary databases published by Alexander Street Press. WFU does not subscribe to all Alexander Street Press databases.